Why does the government offer so few part-time positions? I've worked for the government for 17+ years (including military service) and have seen quite a few employees that are in positions that would be adequately fulfilled with a part-time employee. I also am aware of quite a few employees who don't feel that they are busy enough to fill a 40-hr work week, and would rather work part-time. Part-time positions would cut down on commuter subsidies, as well. If the question is health care and benefits, job-sharing should be more prevelant; (in my case, we have healthcare through my spouse's work; but if I were doing a job-share, the "sharing" employee could have the healthcare benefits that I don't need- and the government is only paying one full-time employee.)
Although it might create more positions (bad if you want a smaller govt), it would increase the talent pool across the government, and would also save $$!